40Eing`s relations with Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, as well as the minor effects of cooperation with these partners, result mainly from the lack of financial resources, political conditions and the absence of a local tradition of autonomy in these countries, as well as restrictions and customs duties increasingly limited to human mobility. In 16193, Poland ratified the European Framework Agreement on cross-border cooperation between local and regional authorities, proclaimed in Madrid on 21 May 1980, and in 1994 the European Charter of Local Self-Government, signed in 1985 by 12 countries participating in the work of the Standing Conference of European Municipalities and Regions (currently congress of…). Twenty-four „private contacts“ focused on the individual mobility of citizens, especially local executives. External support institutions have been the most frequent: the German-Polish Foundation for Cooperation and the European Commission, which offer support through support programmes such as flagship crossborders in border regions, town twinning, Ecos-Overture, Youth for Europe and others. In the early 1990s, the twin city department of the Cabinet Office (Warsaw) offered assistance for liaison between partners. The aim was to support ideas for cooperation between regions, cities and municipalities. The department offered to help find foreign partners and maintained a database on town twinning. The partners were compared on the basis of criteria such as geographical location, history, function, cultural traditions, social and demographic characteristics, state of economic development, socio-economic problems and the level of cooperation mentioned in the applications (Budzynovska, 1996). The twinning was also supported by the Local Democracy Development Foundation (Warsaw, Poland), in collaboration with local organisations in other European countries, for example. B.dem Association of Dutch Municipalities.
The Association of Polish Cities helps Polish municipalities apply for grants under the European Commission`s Town Twinning Programme. In border regions, Euroregions and other foundations or agencies also offer assistance to municipalities in finding individual partners (Marczuk and Palka, 2002). To enable everyone to participate in exchanges between our two communities without any discrimination, 2The establishment of international contacts between local authorities within the framework of different types of international local cooperation (MIC), such as bilateral relations between municipalities (twinning, twin towns), border associations and major international organizations, is one of the facets of progressive globalization. European integration is one of them. These links allow local communities to exchange experiences and innovations in the field of urban and community management techniques and encourage people to follow the trend towards the removal of political barriers. In addition, they generate flows of goods and people through exchange programs initiated by local governments and organized with their help. The MIC is used to facilitate the exchange of technical expertise, provide education and training for staff, address issues of racism and social inclusion, find solutions to environmental problems or improve the level of education of young people (Handley, 2001). International exchange programmes can play an important role in building a more participatory world.
They offer many opportunities for personal experience in transnational systems and thus help to fill perception gaps (Algeria, 1981, 1999). One of the main ways to achieve these objectives is the communal exchange of civil servants and citizens (especially children and young people). 3The purpose of this paper is to speculate on twinning exchange programmes in the context of international human mobility. . . .