The Standard Model sets up a field called the Higgs field (symbol: φ) which, after renormalization, has the unusual characteristic of an unequal amplitude zero in its base energy (zero point); That is, a vacuum wait value is zero unequal. It may have this effect because of its unusual „Mexican hat“, the deepest „point“ of which is not in its „center“. Below a certain extremely high energy level, the existence of this unequally zero vacuum expectation spontaneously breaks the electroschwak eichsymmetry which, in turn, causes the Higgs mechanism and triggers mass absorption by the particles that interact with the field. The Higgs mechanism occurs whenever a loaded field has a vacuum wait value. This effect occurs because the scalar components of the Higgs field are „absorbed“ by the massive boons as degrees of freedom and are coupled to the Yukawa coupling fermions, thus generating the expected mass enterms. The expected value of φ0 in the base state (the vacuum standby value or VEV) is then ⟨φ0⟩ = v/√2, v = |μ|/√λ. The measured value of this parameter is approximately 246 GeV/c2. [100] It has units of mass and is the only free parameter of the Standard Model that is not a dimensionless number. The vacuum state of the „free“ electromagnetic field (which has no sources) is defined as the base state in which nkλ = 0 is for all modes (k, λ). The vacuum state, like all stationary states of the field, is an own state of the Hamiltonschen, but not of the electrical and magnetic operators. In the vacuum state, the electric and magnetic fields therefore do not have clear values. We can imagine that they oscillate around their average of zero.

In 1912, Max Planck published the journal`s first paper that described discontinuous radiation emissions based on discrete energy levels. [28] In Planck`s „second quantum theory,“ resonators continuously absorbed energy, but only emitted energy in discrete amounts of energy when they reached the limits of finished cells in phase space, where their energies became multiples of hν. This theory led Planck to his new radiation law, but in this version, energy sonators possessed zero-point energy, the smallest average power a resonator could take. . . .