Often these agreements are defined in company policies or an employment contract. Employees without bonuses and without contracts can be paid scales or commissions. They still need to receive at least the national minimum wage. The Act is now enshrined in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 p.179, which provides that collective agreements are definitively considered non-binding in the United Kingdom. This presumption can be rebutted if the agreement is written and includes an express provision that it should be legally enforceable. On 22 January 2016, a new collective agreement was signed between the VR and the Icelandic trade association. The agreement is almost unanimous with the collective agreement signed yesterday between the affiliated organisations of the Confederation of Icelandic Trade Unions and the SA, which provides for the same wage changes. While the provisional increase has not yet been officially announced, ICRA estimates that the big tea players have started paying salaries at the premium rate from August 1, 2018. Vr enters into collective agreements with the Association of Icelandic Enterprises (Samt-k atvinnul-fsins, SA) and the Icelandic Trade Association (FA, formerly f.S.), as well as with several companies outside these organisations. Collective agreements in Germany are legally binding, which is accepted by the public, and this is not a cause for concern.  [Failed verification] While in the United Kingdom there was (and probably still is) an „she and us“ attitude in labour relations, the situation is very different in post-war Germany and in some other northern European countries. In Germany, the spirit of cooperation between the social partners is much greater. For more than 50 years, German workers have been represented by law on boards of directors.
 Together, management and workers are considered „social partners.“  In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements, compared to 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  „They will send a message that they are not ready to accept employers who will reduce their wages in the future,“ he says. „BESNA is an employer charter.“ However, it acknowledges that „workers are getting pardoned to keep their jobs.“